History of the empire of Trebizond, A.D. 1204-1461-( 1864 , pages 306-427) -free google book

The Ypsilantis family hailed from the Pontian population of Trabezounta.

“T rapézonte…. the capital city of the Empire of Trebizond.

Τραπεζοữς Trapezous, en Grec Pontique : Τραπεζούντa… était une ville des rives Sud-est de la mer Noire, anciennement dans le royaume du Pont Polémoniaque…. T rapézonte (or Trapezunt, ….was a city of Southeast shores of the Black Sea, formerly in the realm of Polémoniaque Bridge (now Turkey). “Trapézonte était située sur l’historique route de la soie et devint un creuset de religions, de langues et de cultures et une porte d’entrée commerciale pour l’Iran au Sud-est et le Caucase au Nord. Trapezus was located on the historical Silk Road and became a melting pot of religions, languages ​​and cultures and Gateway for Iran to the south-east and the North Caucasus. Lors de la période de domination du Nouvel Empire Hittite (1465-1200), ces derniers appelaient la région de Trapézonte, Hayasa ou Azzi . During the period of domination of the Hittite New Kingdom (1465-1200), they called the Trapezus area Hayasa or Azzi. Plus tard, les Assyriens installèrent un poste avancé dans la cité. Later the Assyrians settled an outpost in the city.

Click for larger image

Drachme de Trapézonte – IVe s. Drachma Trapezus – fourth century. av.JC – British Museum BC – British Museum


Selon la tradition Grecque générale, la cité fut fondée par les colons Milésiens en 756 av.JC, peut-être par des colons venant de Sinope . According to tradition Greek general, the city was founded by settlers Miletus in 756 BC, perhaps by colonists from Sinope . Pausanias (Ecrivain et géographe Grec , 115-180 ap.JC) mentionne une ville de Trapezus qui aurait fondé la cité de Megalopolis en 371 av.JC Lors de la période Grecque , la ville fut assiégée par les Scythes. Pausanias (writer and geographer Greek , 115-180 AD) mentions a city Trapezus who founded the city of Megalopolis in 371 BC During the period Greek , the city was besieged by the Scythians. Plus tard elle sera prise par les Perses . Later it will be taken by the Persians . Ce fut aux environs de Trapézonte que Xénophon (Philosophe, historien et maître de guerre Grec , v.430-v.355) et ses “Dix Mille”, dans son Anabase, aperçurent la mer pour la première fois, suite à leur retraite depuis l’ Empire Perse . It was around that Trapezus Xenophon (Philosopher, historian and master of war Greek , v.430-v.355) and “Ten Thousand” in his Anabasis, saw the sea for the first time, following their retirement from the Persian Empire . En 334 av.JC Trapézonte fut libérée par le Roi Macédonien , Alexandre le Grand (336-323). In 334 BC Trapezus was liberated by King Macedonian , Alexander the Great (336-323). Elle fut ensuite une courte période la capitale de la Petite Arménie . It was then a short time the capital of Little Armenia . Puis, en 112 av.JC, comme beaucoup de cité des rives de la mer Noire elle fit partie du Royaume du Pont de Mithridate VI (120-63 av.JC) et devint le port d’attache de la flotte Pontique. Then, in 112 BC, as many cited the shores of the Black Sea, it became part of the Kingdom of Bridge of Mithridates VI (120-63 BC) and became the home port of the Pontic fleet. En 65/64, lors de la dernière guerre du Roi contre l’Empire Romain elle fut prise par ces derniers qui en firent la capitale de la province de Galatie. In 65/64, during the last war the King against the Roman Empire it was taken by the latter who made ​​it the capital of the province of Galatia.

Sous la domination Romaine, la ville se fit un nom en tant que centre de constructions navales (la Pontica Classis ). Under Roman rule, the city made ​​a name as a shipbuilding center (the Classis Pontica). Au Ier siècle, la cité gagna encore de l’importance grâce à son accès aux routes menant au col de Zigana (Montagne Pontique dans la province de Gümüşhane, dans le Nord de la Turquie actuelle, à l’époque en Arménie ) ou à la frontière supérieure de la vallée de l’Euphrate. In the first century, the city won again the importance due to its access to roads leading to the pass Zigana (Pontic Mountains in the province of Gümüşhane in the north of modern Turkey, at the time in Armenia ) or upper border of the Euphrates valley. Sous le règne de l’Empereur Vespasien (69-79) de nouvelles routes furent construites partant de Trapézonte pour la Perse et la Mésopotamie . Under the reign of the Emperor Vespasian (69-79) of new roads were built starting from Trapezus to Persia and Mesopotamia . Sous celui de l’Empereur Hadrien (117-138) le port fut restructuré et amélioré. Under that of the Emperor Hadrian (117-138) the port was restructured and improved. Beaucoup plus tard, en 238 ap.JC, elle fut assiégée et prise par les Goths qui la ravagèrent. Much later, in 238 AD, it was besieged and taken by the Goths ravaged it. À la fin du IIIe siècle elle fut reconstruite par des habitants Chrétiens qui y installèrent de nombreuses églises et monastères. At the end of the third century it was rebuilt by Christian people who set up many churches and monasteries. Cependant Trapézonte ne récupéra pas ses accès aux routes commerciales avant le VIIIe siècle. However Trapezus not regained its access to trade routes before the eighth century. Des auteurs musulmans notent que la cité fut fréquenté par des marchands musulmans et qu’elle fut la principale source de transition des soieries Byzantines vers les pays musulmans de l’Est. Muslim authors note that the city was visited by Muslim traders and that was the main source transition silks Byzantines to the Muslim countries of the East. Après la quatrième croisade, de 1204 à 1461, un royaume Latin de Trapézonte sera créé avec l’appui de la Reine Tamar de Géorgie. After the Fourth Crusade, from 1204 to 1461, a Latin kingdom of Trapezus will be created with the support of Queen Tamar of Georgia.

The Treaty of London for Greek Independence, July 6, 1827.

Treaty of London, 1827

 (Alexandros Ypsilantis was in  prison in Austria at that time).

Modern History Sourcebook: The Treaty of London between Great Britain, France, and Russia for the Pacification of Greece, July 6, 1827, excerpts

From: http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1827gktreaty.html

In the Name of the Most Holy and Undivided Trinity. His Majesty the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, His Majesty the King of France and Navarre, and His Majesty the Emperor of All the Russias, penetrated with the necessity of putting an end to the sanguinary struggle which, while it abandons the Greek Provinces and the Islands of the Archipelago to all the disorders of anarchy, daily causes fresh impediments to the commerce of the States of Europe, and gives opportunity for acts of Piracy which not only expose the subjects of the High Contracting Parties to grievous losses, but also render necessary measures which are burthensome for their observation and suppression;

His Majesty the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and His Majesty the King of France and Navarre, having moreover received from the Greeks an earnest invitation to interpose their Mediation with the Ottoman Porte; and, together with His Majesty the Emperor of All the Russians, being animated with the desire of putting a stop to the effusion of blood, and of preventing the evils of every kind which the continuance of such a state of affairs may produce;

They have resolved to combine their efforts, and to regulate the operation thereof, by a formal Treaty, for the object of re-establishing peace between the contending parties, by means of an arrangement called for, no less by sentiments of humanity, than by interests for the tranquillity of Europe.

For these purposes, they have named their Plenipotentiaries to discuss, conclude, and sign the said Treaty, that is to say; His Majesty the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the Right Honourable John William Viscount Dudley, a Peer of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, a Member of His said Majesty’s Most Honourable Privy Council, and his Principal Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs; His Majesty the King of France and Navarre, the Prince Jules, Count de Polignac, a Peer of France, Knight of the Orders of His Most Christian Majesty, Marechal-de-Camp of his Forces, Grand Cross of the Order of St. Maurice of Sardinia, &c., &c., and his Ambassador at London; And His Majesty the Emperor of All the Russias, the Sieur Christopher Prince de Lieven, General of Infantry of His Imperial Majesty’s Forces, his Aide-de-Camp General, his Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to His Britannic Majesty, &c.; Who, after having communicated to each other their Full Powers, found to be in due and proper form, have agreed upon the following Articles…”

http://ecommons.library.cornell.edu/bitstream/1813/662/1/Treaty%20of%20London%2c%201827.pdf

or visit

http://ecommons.library.cornell.edu/handle/1813/662?mode=full&submit_simple=Show+full+item+record

A poem Lord Byron wrote in lament of an enslaved Greece.

”                          The Isles of Greece

(By Lord Byron)

“The isles of Greece, the isles of Greece!
Where burning Sappho loved and sung,
Where grew the arts of war and peace,
Where Delos rose and Phoebus sprung!
Eternal summer gilds them yet,
But all, except their sun, is set.

The Scian and the Teian muse,
The hero’s harp, the lover’s lute,
Have found the fame your shores refuse:
Their place of birth alone is mute
To sounds which echo further west
Then your sires’ `Islands of the Blest.’

The mountains look on Marathon–
And Marathon looks on to sea;
And musing there an hour alone,
I dream’d that Greece might still be free;
For standing on the Persians’ grave,
I could not deem myself a slave…”

http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CREC-2001-03-20/html/CREC-2001-03-20-pt1-PgH979-7.htm

Constantine (Alexander) Negri

Birth: 1804, Phanar, Constantinople

Death: 16 Jun 1880, Athens, Greece
 Sent to Chios to study where we was caught up in the 1822 massacres and sold into slavery in Asia Minor. Escaped and took protection with his kinsman Greek president Alexander Mavrocordato.
 Studied physics and maths at the Lycée de France and at the Sorbonne. Became professor of mathematics at the new University of Athens (Grrece) until 1845.
 FatherAlexander (Theodorus) Negri (1784-1856)